You can back up online or offline Oracle databases, log files, or Oracle datafiles and tablespaces. If the database must be accessible and you only have a small backup window, run a series of online backups for different parts of the database.
You can run backups immediately or configure a schedule.
Oracle full backups include the entire database and the control file. A full backup is the most comprehensive backup and is the baseline for incremental backups. Full backups of online databases include the log files. An offline full backup is a cold backup for Oracle databases.
An Oracle incremental backup contains the changed data from the last full backup. Incremental backups use less media and resources than full backups.
In a cumulative level n backup, only the data that differs from the most recent backup at level n-1 or a lower level is backed up.
What Is Backed Up
Oracle database files that include the datafiles and control files
Archived redo logs
Parameter files (SP file)
Oracle Managed Files
What Is Not Backed Up
Oracle application files that are associated with the Oracle installation
External files, for example, Oracle Wallet, and external tables